Strategies,of,Enlivening,Classroom,Atmosphere,in,Senior,School,English,Teaching in terms of

  Nowadays, in senior high school, a lot of problems still exist in the English teaching; especially the classroom atmosphere cannot be enlivened. Some teachers still adopt traditional teaching methods. Teacher-centered teaching and duck stuffing method are two of them. Worse still, the exam-oriented always surrounds the outline of the exam. Under the influence of traditional teaching model and the exam-oriented, the classroom atmosphere is dull. As to the problem, many scholars have studied the strategies of enlivening classroom atmosphere. While, as to the author, her purpose of writing this thesis is to analyze the causes of the problem carefully and give some corresponding solutions, because an active classroom atmosphere can not only stimulate students" interest of learning, but also cultivate students" self-study ability, reasoning ability and creative ability.
  In order to eliminate the dull classroom atmosphere and create an active one, the author tries to analyze and study the problems carefully. According to the author"s analysis, the causes of the problems are as follows:
  1. Problems Caused by the School
  The school still adopts the exam-oriented education which surrounds the outline of the exam. To increase the rate of entering a higher school is its only purpose. So the school asks teachers to train the students in many kinds of ways such as exams and simulated tests, etc. Such a tense situation brings both teachers and students bad effects. But in some of the schools they still uses the old teaching tools, because it cannot afford the modern equipment. So the teacher just uses a book, a blackboard, a mouth, a tape recorder, and chalk to teach the students, which make the students in a passive status or even cannot stimulate the students" interest and then the classroom atmosphere cannot be enlivened.
  Nowadays, Chinese model is still mostly used in class by some teachers. Moreover, the teacher does not play the tape when he/she teaches the text. What"s more, the teacher does not make good use of teaching tools such as wall maps, pictures, cards, etc. Another factor is about the decoration of classroom. Everything in the classroom is just Chinese, which offers students an atmosphere of Chinese but not English.
  2. Problems Caused by Teachers
  Some teachers still adopt traditional teaching methods. Teacher-centered teaching and duck stuffing method are two of them. Two characters of the traditional teaching methods are: (1) Teachers put much emphasis on grammatical knowledge while ability cultivation of students is highly ignored. (2) The teacher is a monopolist in class and repeats what the book says, while the students just listen respectfully.
  "Leading-in is one of the arts to enliven classroom atmosphere." Under the influence of the traditional teaching method, the teacher just pays much attention to explain in class and only knows how to cultivate students" ability of coping with exams.
  some teachers evaluate students only by marks. Even some obey the principle of "Test is equal to evaluation". So the more marks the students get, the more affirmation the teacher gives. By contrast, the less mark students get, the more negation the teacher gives. Such a unilateral evaluation not only makes the students depressed, but also weakens their learning motivation.
  "A famous educationist once mentioned: a teacher who is not good at imitating and does not use proper facial expressions can not become a good teacher." The teacher plays a leading role and only teaches knowledge. It belongs to one side output. While students play a support role, and listen to the teacher passively, it is one side receiving. In such a circumstance, students" inner motivation can not be inspired.
  An unharmonious teacher-students relationship is the obstacle of teacher-students communication. At present, some teachers do not realize it. her improper actions are as follows: Firstly, when she gives a lesson, she cannot keep a good mood, which makes the atmosphere dull. Secondly, the teacher cannot treat the students equally. she only pays attention to excellent students and never looks after poor students. Thirdly, some teachers do not respect and love students. Moreover, they do not believe in students, especially their potential ability.
  3. Problems Caused by Students
  "The character of students varies from student to student. Some belong to the outward style and some belong to the inward. As we know, an outward student is active and brave. By contrast, the inward student is inactive and timid."As to the whole class, some students" foundation is better and some is poor. So it is hard for the teacher to make every student understand or even to stimulate their interest, especially for poor students. "Interest is a kind of psychology inclination, which makes people know the objective things actively and initiatively. As to students, it shows a sort of studious spirit and a motivation, which stimulates students to hunt for knowledge."
  From the above analysis, we can see that there are three kinds of causes of problems. In order to eliminate the dull classroom atmosphere and create an active one, some solutions are as follows:
  4. Solutions to the School
   "To develop the students" all-round abilities is one of the characters of the quality based education, while the student-centered teaching model is the specific reflection of it. So during teaching, students" subjectivity should be ensured."
  4.1 Improving Teaching Equipment
  With the rapid development of technique, more and more modern equipment should be produced such as multimedia, television, lantern slide, tape recorder, video, language lab, etc. Multimedia technique is widely used by all kinds of schools. Its lively, vivid, intuitive, and novel characters can not only optimize English classroom teaching, but also enliven students" visual factors and then stimulate their learning activeness. Moreover, we should offer a language environment to cultivate students" listening, speaking, reading, and writing abilities.
  4.2 Improving Teaching Environment
  As to a language learner, to have a good language environment is very important. Some strategies are as follows: To begin with, the teacher speaks as much simple English as possible in class. Next, giving students more chances to listen to the tape. Moreover, taking the situation teaching and then offering students more chances to perform. Last but not least, decorating classroom with a variety of English forms such as pictures, English proverbs, doorplate, schedule, simple notice, etc, students" vision can be enhanced and a good language environment can be created.
  5. Solutions to the Problems Caused by Teachers
  5.1 Situational Teaching Method
  Situational teaching is a new teaching method. By creating lively and vivid situational settings, it can promote the intercommunication between teachers and students. It is a method to generate students" desire of communication and assure active participation in language learning. Only with this enthusiasm can students fully assimilate what is taught to them.
  5.2 Multimedia Assistant Teaching Method
  "Multimedia can bring both visual functions and acoustical functions into play by providing colorful pictures, interesting flashes, and sounds. With the help of multimedia, students can get better acquainted with Standard English."
  5.3 Games Teaching Method
  "Game activities can not only avoid dull atmosphere, but also improve classroom teaching effect. What"s more, providing students with a pleasant and relaxed atmosphere, which is helpful to stimulate students" interest and cultivate their creativity."
  5.4 Leading-in before Class
  "Leading-in is an important step in teaching. An efficient Leading-in can not only stimulate students" interest and cultivate their confidence, but also improve teaching effect. According to teaching material and the reality of students, teacher should take proper leading-in methods such as using pictures, objects, etc."
  5.5 Giving Affirmative Evaluation
  Affirmative evaluation has great influence on cultivating students" learning ability as well as inspiring their learning motive. During the process of English teaching, appropriate appreciation towards students can produce magical power. These simple words as: "very good" "wonderful" "excellent" "clever" will inspire students" inner motivation. Then, affirmative evaluation includes the following ways: Firstly, face-to-face communication. Secondly, giving students positive affirmation.
  5.6 Enriching Teachers" Facial Expressions and Language
  As to a teacher, to have rich facial expressions and language is very important in teaching. So the teacher should keep smile and master the art of language in some circumstances. To begin with, the teacher should smile when entering classroom. Moreover, responding by smiling and nodding when a student is talking. As for teacher"s language, it also makes a great effect on students. So teachers should use humorous language, because humorousness is a kind of good medicine to motivate people" mood.
  5.7 Improving Classroom Interaction
  "An effective classroom interaction brings both teacher and students a lot of benefits. So teachers should create more interaction chances. Some ideas are as follows: To begin with, creating a friendly, relaxed learning environment. Secondly, the teacher should organize some cooperative activities."
  5.8 Building up a Harmonious Teacher-student Relationship
  "The teacher-student relationship has great influence on students. So to build up a harmonious teacher-student relationship is vital important. Some methods are as follows: First of all, keeping a relationship of democracy, equality and cooperation. Moreover, the teacher should respect student"s individual character and personality and form a harmonious teacher-student relationship of inter-respecting. Secondly, creating a relaxed teaching environment."
  6. Solutions to the Problems Caused by Students
  6.1 Using Encouragement and Praise in Proper Time
  According to the characteristics of inward students, giving them encouragement and praise in proper time is the key to help them to gain confidence. So teachers should use more words of encouragement.
  6.2 Arranging a Proper Classroom Teaching According to Students" Foundation
  "Students" poor foundation can influence their ability of understanding. So to know how to arrange proper teaching according to students" foundation is very important to teachers. There are two strategies as follows. To begin with, raising questions should take care of three kinds of students (excellent students, secondary students and poor students). Next, divide proper groups when discussing."
  6.3 Stimulating Students" Interest
  As the old saying goes, "Interest is the best teacher." Besides, interest is the chief motivator that pushes the students to learn. In classroom teaching, the best way to keep students" interest is to plan for various activities. This will help keep students interest and improve their motivation.
  6.4 Helping Students to Master Learning Strategies
  "Learning strategies" or "instructional strategies" are the various ways used to involve the learners in the training program such as questioning during class, refection after reading, etc.
  "English learning strategies refer to learners" uses steps, methods or skills in the process of English learning. Learning strategies guarantee the development of students" subjectivity quality."
  In conclusion, an active classroom atmosphere is one of the conditions of reaching efficient teaching. As to the strategies of enlivening classroom atmosphere, many scholars have studied. They have their own ideas. For example, "To develop the students" all-round abilities is very important in English teaching.", "Leading-in before class is a good method to enliven classroom atmosphere."So the school should improve teaching environment. Besides, teachers should improve their own quality. Last but not least, teachers should encourage and praise students and try to stimulate students" interest of learning English. Only the school, teachers and students cooperate together, can the classroom atmosphere be enlivened.
  [1] Sheng Deren, Ed. A New Method of English Teaching and Learning [M]. Shanghai: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2002.
  [2] Harmer J. The Practice of English Language Teaching [M].London: Longman Group UK Limited. 1989:18-20.
  [3] Xin Jianzhong and Yu Hongzhen. Psychology in Foreign Language Teaching [M]. Anhui: Anhui Education Press, 1986:50-55.
  [4] Chen Dexiu. Pedagogical Psychology [M]. Beijing: Educational Science Press, 1981.
  [5] Gu Xueliang. The Basic Technical Training in English Teaching [M]. Hangzhou:Hangzhou University Press, 1998:40-45.
  [6] Mc Donough, J, Mc Donough, S.Research Methods for English Teaching and Research [M]. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  [7] 刘润清. 外语教学中的研究方法[M]. 北京: 外语教学与研究出版社,2000:30-38.
  [8] Kumpulainen, K and Wray, D. Classroom Interaction and Social Learning [M]. London: Routledge Falmer. 2002:60-70.
  [9] 束定芳, 庄智能象. 现代外语教学-理论. 实践与方法[M]. 上海: 上海外语教育出版社,1996.
  [10] 张念宏.中国教育百科全书[M]. 北京:海洋出版社,1991,8.
  [11] Jeremy Harmer. The Practice of English Language Teaching [M].London: Longman, 1994.
  [12] 胡春洞. 英语教学法[M]. 北京: 高等教育出版社, 1988.
  [13] 赖志炅. 现代教学论[M]. 杭州: 浙江大学出版社, 2000.
  [14] 刘芳.心理健康教育与教师心理素质[M]. 北京: 中国和平出版社, 2000,3.
  [15] 王蔷.英语教学法教程[M]. 北京: 高等教育出版社, 1998.
  [16] 章兼中.外语教学心理学[M]. 安徽:安徽教育出版社, 1986.

金娱乐 - 金域开户